5 Methods – How to Concatenate Strings in Python Which One is Best?

In this guide, you will learn how to concatenate or combine two or more strings together to form a single and continuous string.

In Python, we can achieve this by various methods to concatenate strings efficiently and effectively. In this article, we will explore different techniques to concatenate strings in Python and provide examples for each method.

We will also take a look on their performance and which one you should use.

We will cover the following various techniques like the plus operator, the join method, the format function, f-strings, and concatenating with newlines.


1. The Plus Operator

The simplest way to concatenate strings in Python is by using the plus (+) operator:

string1 = "Hello"
string2 = "World"
result = string1 + " " + string2


2. The Join Method

The join method is a versatile approach for concatenating strings, especially when working with multiple strings.


separator = "-"
words = ["Python", "is", "awesome"]
result = separator.join(words)



list_of_strings = ["This", "is", "a", "list"]
result = " ".join(list_of_strings)


3. The Format Function

The format function allows for more control over the string concatenation process.


Positional Arguments

greeting = "Hello"
name = "Alice"
result = "{} {}, how are you?".format(greeting, name)


Keyword Arguments

result = "{greeting} {name}, how are you?".format(greeting="Hello", name="Alice")


4. F-strings

F-strings, also known as “formatted string literals”, were introduced in Python 3.6 and offer a concise way to embed expressions inside string literals.

Expression Evaluation

name = "Alice"
age = 30
result = f"{name} is {age} years old."


Format Specifications

pi = 3.1415926535
result = f"The value of pi is approximately {pi:.3f}."


5. Concatenating with Newlines

To concatenate strings with newlines, simply use the newline character (\n).

line1 = "First line"
line2 = "Second line"
result= line1 + "\n" + line2


Practical Examples


1. Concatenating User Input

first_name = input("Enter your first name: ")
last_name = input("Enter your last name: ")
full_name = f"{first_name} {last_name}"
print(f"Your full name is: {full_name}")


2. Concatenating File Contents

with open("file1.txt", "r") as f1, open("file2.txt", "r") as f2:
    content1 = f1.read()
    content2 = f2.read()
    combined = content1 + "\n" + content2

with open("combined.txt", "w") as output_file:


Performance Considerations

When concatenating a large number of strings, it is essential to consider performance. The join method is generally more efficient than using the plus operator in such cases, as it avoids creating numerous intermediate strings.

Also have a look on following table to compare various parameters:

Performance Comparison of String Concatenation Techniques

Technique Time Complexity Space Complexity Speed with Large Data Set Readability Flexibility Python Version Compatibility
Plus Operator O(n^2) O(n) Slow High Low All
Join Method O(n) O(n) Fast High High All
Format Function O(n) O(n) Moderate Moderate High All
F-strings O(n) O(n) Fast High High 3.6+
Concatenate with Newlines O(n) O(n) Moderate High Low All





Which method is the most efficient for concatenating strings in Python?

The join method is generally the most efficient, especially when concatenating a large number of strings.

Can I concatenate strings and integers using the plus operator?

No, you cannot concatenate strings and integers directly using the plus operator. You must convert the integer to a string first using the str() function.

What are the advantages of using f-strings?

F-strings provide a concise and readable way to embed expressions inside string literals, allowing for easier formatting and evaluation of expressions.

How do I concatenate strings with a specific separator?

Use the join method with the desired separator. For example, ", ".join(["apple", "banana", "cherry"]) results in the string “apple, banana, cherry”.

Can I concatenate strings from multiple files?

Yes, you can read the contents of multiple files, concatenate them, and write the concatenated result to a new file.



In this article, we have explored different techniques for concatenating strings in Python, including the plus operator, the join method, the format function, f-strings, and concatenating with newlines. Each method has its unique advantages and use cases, and understanding these techniques will enable you to write more efficient and readable code.

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